The incidence of Type ll Diabetes has grown worldwide as an epidemic. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that 40% of the US population will develop Type ll Diabetes during their lifetime.
The rise of Type ll Diabetes is associated with a lack of physical exercise, obesity, a sedimentary lifestyle, and an aging population. By the end of 2020, the cost for diabetes care was estimated to be $4.7 billion.
Patients develop Type ll Diabetes, mellitus, from impaired insulin secretion, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia. The carbohydrates that are ingested are broken down into sugar and trigger the release of insulin from beta cells within the pancreas. There are special transporters called GLUT-4 that are the transporters for the sugar into the cells. Chronic and continuous elevations in blood sugar can lead to insulin resistance. Type ll Diabetes occurs when the cells cannot take up the sugar with the insulin. The result is that beta cell function is hampered. Insulin resistance causes the production of inflammatory cellular triggering agents and free fatty acids.