PERIODONTAL DISEASE AND THE RELATIONSHIP TO CARDIOVASCULAR HEART DISEASE.
Most individuals realize that there are environmental and genetic predispositioning factors associated with cardiovascular disease. These include: diabetes, lipid abnormalities and associated metabolism issues, obesity, hypertension and age.
Environmental issues play a major role also which may include: stress, smoking, chronic infections processed exercise.
Additionally more recent research shows that patients that have periodontal biofilms create a domino effect of chronic infections inflammatory processes, oxidative stress, and immune dysfunction to cardiovascular disease.
Bacteria: streptococcus mutants and porphyrominas, gingivitis can stimulate platelet aggregation and thrombus formation.
42% of atheromatous plaque are found in patients with periodontal disease. 25% of patients have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Men younger than 50 years of age have a 72% higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Additionally, those that have periodontal disease have a two-fold increased risk of both fatal and non-fatal strokes.
Periodontal disease transmits bacteria throughout the circulation which can and will invade the heart tissue. There is a association between high levels of bacteria and carotid artery thickness.
Our body responds to the infections process within the mouth by producing pro-inflammatory substances that are circulation around and attacking the endothelium within the blood vessels. Elevated levels of lipoprotein, C-reactive protein and triglycerides are seen in patients with periodontal disease.
These changes within the blood vessels is very complex due to the cellular inflammatory process. The end results are the development of atherosclerotic plaque or lesions, in a coronary blood vessel. These lesions can have a “soft cap” that can rupture in vessel and the lead to a heart attack or stroke.